WHENCE STATES FORM, WHY STATES FAIL AND HOW STATES CAN RE-BUILD: CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CRISES OF ‘STATES OF FRAGILITIES’ IN AFRICA

Alex Igho Ovie-D'Leone (PhD)

Abstract


The inter-state system is increasingly evolving into a global village of sort in the light of the ever widening gap of social inequalities between countries of the North and the South with its attendant spike in human miseries across the South. This has been occasioned by failing states capacities to deliver needed political goods for their citizenry, as especially rife in Africa in the recent time. Reasons for these trends are manifold and have been aptly captured by the current discourse on the crises of state fragilities in Africa in attempts to establish several causal linkages between multiple externalities and endogenous factors. This paper posits that, both external and endogenous factors are all complicit in the slide towards fragilities by African states. A plausible explanandum here seemingly will be that, ‘whence states form, why states fail, and how states can re-build’ are all stage-processes linked dialectically to their potentials to rebound or slide back into fragilities, failures or eventual collapse. The paper argues that, a state must already be weakened internally in its constitutive framework before other externalities can aggravate its slide into fragilities and eventual collapse. Therefore, the paper avers that, potentialities for such malaises are logically situated at the roots of state origins. Spike in numbers of state fragilities undoubtedly presents us with perhaps one of the most fundamental of all sundry strategic challenges to prospects for sustainable global peace and security in the 21st century. The paper highlights the strategic imports of these ominous trends and attempts to thinker out possible pragmatic responses to counter them in order to reposition African and indeed the global community on a better stand-plank so as to promote our shared ethos of a common humanity.


Keywords


State Formation, Fragile States, State Failures, State Collapse, State Building

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bates, Roberts H. (2008). “State Failures”, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 11, pp. 1-12

Bogdandy, Armin Von, et al (eds) (2005). “State Building, Nation-Building and Constitutional Politics in Post-Conflict Situations: Conceptual Clarification and an Appraisal of Different Approaches”, Marx Planck Yearbook of the United Nations Law, Vol. 9, pp. pp. 579-613.

Buzan, Barry and Ole Weaver. (2003), Regimes and Power: The Structure of International Security, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Call, C. T. (2011). “Beyond the ‘Failed State: Towards Conceptual Alternatives”, European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 17.2, pp. 303-326.

____. (2008). “The Fallacy of the Failed State”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 29.8, pp. 1491-1507.

Davidson, Basil. (1992). The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State, New York: Random House.

Englebert, Pierre (2000). “Solving the Mystery of the African Dummy”, World Development, Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 1821-1835.

Fukuyama, Francis, (2004). “State Building, Governance and World Order in the 21st Century”. In: Hipper (Ed), Nation-Building EinSchlusskonzept fur friedlicheBeitung.

Gros, J. G. (1996). “Towards a Taxonomy of Failed States in the New World Order: Decaying Somalia, Liberia, Rwanda and Haiti”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 17.3, pp 455-472.

Herbst, Jeffery (1990). “War and the State in Africa”, International Security, Vol. 14, pp. 117-139.

Kaplan, S. (2008). Fixing Fragile States: A New Paradigm for Development, USA: Preager Security International.

Kasfir, nelson (1983), “Introduction: State and Class in Africa”, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp 43-57.

Kinston, Paul and Ian S. Spears, Eds. (2004). States within States: Inxcipient Political Entities in Post-Cold War Era, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kirby, Andrew and Michael D. Ward. (1991). “Modeernity and the Process of State Formation: An Examination of 20th Century Africa”, International Interactions, Vol 17. No. 1, pp. 113-126.

Lemke, Douglas. (2003), “Development and War”, International Studies Review, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp 55-66.

Levitt, S. (2012). Why Nations Fail? The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty, UK: Profile Books.

Ovie-D’Leone, A. I. (2018). “Analyzing Social Disorders in Structured Orders: An Introduction to the ASRI Model”, American Journal of Humanities and Social sciences (AJHSS), Vol. 6, pp.16-25

____ . (2013). “Interrogating Fallacies, Denigrations and Misconceptions about Africa in Euro-centric Discourse”, Greener Journal of World Peace, Security and Development, Vol. 1 (1), pp. 001-011.

____ . (2008). “The Social Anthropology of Political Conflicts: A Comparative Study of Political Conflicts in Africa and Europe”, Being a PhD Dissertation Submitted for the Award of a Doctorate in Political Science at the University of Bucharest Romania, pp. 1-551

Patrick, S. (2007). “Failed States and Global Security: Empirical Questions and Policy Dilemmas”, International Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 44, pp. 644-662.

Rotberg, R. (2005). Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators, USA: Wilson Centre.

____. (2004a). “The Failure and Collapse of Nation-States: Breaking Down, Preventing and Repair”. In: Rotlerg I. When States Fails: Causes and Consequences, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

____. (2004b). When States Fail, Causes and Consequences, US: Princeton University Press.

_____ . (2003). “Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators". In: R. I. Rotberg (Ed) State Failure and State Weakness in aTime of Terror.

Rothchild, Donald and Victor A. Olorunsola, Eds. (1983). State Versus Ehtnic Claims: African Policy Dilemmas, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Taylor, A. (2013). State Failure, Global Issues, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tilly, Charles. (1975 [1997]). “Western State Making and Theories of Political Transformation”, in: The Formation of National States in Western Europe, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

_____ . (2000). Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 900 – 1990, Malden: Blackwell.

Theis, Cameron G. (2007). “The Politica;l Economy of State Building in Sub-Saharan Africa”, The Journal of Politics, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 716-731.

Ulrich, Schneckener (Ed). (2004). “States at risk: Fragile States” atsSiccherheits und EntwickWungsproblem, SwpStudie Berlin. Available Online at: http://.Swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/studien/2004_S43_Skv_Ks. pdf . Accessed on: 04/07/18.

Young, Crawford. (1998).“The African Colonial State and Its Political Legacy”. In The Percarious Balance: State and Society in Africa, Eds, Donald Rothchild and Naomi Chazan, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

ISSN PRINT: 2705-2494

ISSN ONLINE: 2705-2486

 

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.