ATTITUDE AND GENDER AS PREDICTORS OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT INTENTIONS OF UNDERGRADUATE ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN OSUN STATE

Kingsley Ezenwaoke Nwaimo

Abstract


Unemployment situation in Nigeria has worsened in recent times as many university graduates roam the streets without any employment. Different government interventions aimed at creating employment opportunities have not significantly improve the situation. The newly introduced entrepreneurship education by the National Universities Commission (NUC) has been applauded by different stakeholders, but the cognitive knowledge of entrepreneurship has not been translated into job creation by graduates. This study thus, aimed at identifying sundry factors that influence self-employment intentions of undergraduate Economics students in four private universities in Osun State. The research applies a regressional research design involving 122 final year students who were randomly chosen from four private universities. Two instruments used were: Students’ Attitude Towards entrepreneurship Scale (SATES) and Self-Employment Intention Questionnaire (SIQ). Three research questions were raised and answered and the data obtained were analysed using linear regression and Pearson product moment correlation. The results show that, there was a positive moderate relationship between attitude and self-employment intention with R = 526, gender and self-employment intention had a significant relationship with R= 535 and male being the most influential predictive variable. The combination of the two independent variables had a significant positive relationship. From the findings of this study, it was observed that there is a positive but moderated relationship among, attitude, gender and students’ self-employment intention. Therefore, it was concluded that, there is a great possibility of having some graduates who will want to pursue self-employment as a career option if the conducive environment is provided through government policies and actions.


Keywords


Predictors, Attitude, Gender, Undergraduate, Students and Self-employment Intentions

Full Text:

PDF

References


Azjen. I 1991. The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process 50, no. 2 (1991): 179-211.

Ajzen, I. 2005. Attitudes, personality, and behaviour (2nd ed.). Milton-Keynes, England: Open University Press (McGraw-Hill).

Aishah. U., Cliff. J.. 2016 Student attitude toward entrepreneurship as affected by participation in an SBI program. J. Educ. Bus. 2016, 70, 224–227.

Bird. B. 1988. Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: the Case of Intention, Academy of Management Review, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 442–453.

Begley. A and Boyd. C.K. 1987. Entrepreneurial intentions: Demographic perspectives of South African business students. South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 41-49.

Damianus A., Sylvia L., Grace L .F., Frederick A., M. L. V.Belandres, Theogenia M. (2008) Measuring entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial intention of ABM grade XII, Senior High School Students of Divine Word Colleges in Region I, Philippines. International journal of applied research.

Davidsson, P. (2005) The types and contextual fit of entrepreneurial processes.

Ferri. L, Ginesti. G, Spano. R And Zampella, A .2018. Exploring The Entrepreneurial Intention Of Female Students In Italy. Journal of open innovation, Technology, market and complexity.

Fatoki, O.O. 2010. Graduate entrepreneurial intention in South Africa: Motivations and obstacles. Int. J. Bus. Manag. 2010, 5, 87.

Godwin, L.N.; 2006. Forced to play by the rules? Theorizing how mixed-sex founding

teams benefit women entrepreneurs in male-dominated contexts. Entrep. Theory Practice. 30, 623–642.

Henry. G and .Franc. M. 2012. Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Entrepreneurial intentions among Saudi university students. Afr. J. Bus. Manag. 2012, 6, 4029–4040.

Hatch, H. and Zweig, M. D. 2000; Students’ attitude towards entrepreneurship: does gender matter in the UAE? Foresight 15(4): 278-293.

Jones, P.; Jones, A.; Packham, G.; Miller, C. 2011. Student attitudes towards enterprise education in Poland: A positive impact. Educ. Train. 2011, 50, 597–614.

Kolvereid, L., and Moen, O. 1997 Entrepreneurship among business graduates: Does a major in Entrepreneurship make a difference? Journal of European Industrial Training, 21, 4, 154-160.

Leroy, H., Maes, J., Sels, L. and Debrulle, J. 2009. Gender effects on entrepreneurial intentions: a TPB multigroup analysis at factor and indicator level. Available through the internet: https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/245186/2/2009-09-16+-+12064.pdf [accessed: 14/07/2012].

Linan, F., Rodriguez, J.C., 2004, Entrepreneurial Attitudes of Andalusian University

Students, 44th ERSA Conference, Porto, pp. 23–27

Luca. G., Gialuca. H., Rosanna. O., and Annamaria. U., 2018. Predicting Entrepreneurial Behaviour: a Test of Theory of Planned Behaviour, Applied Economics, vol. 45, no 6, pp. 697–707.

McClelland. O.K. 2006. The Entrepreneurial Ladder, Gender and Regional Development, Small Business Economics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 627–643.

Minniti, M., Allen, I.E., Langowitz, N., 2005, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report on Women and Men Entrepreneurship, Babson College, The Centre for Women’s Leadership, and London Business School, London.

Nwaimo. E,K. 2019. impact evaluation national open apprenticeship scheme of National Directorate of Employment in Southwest Nigeria. 2008-2017. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ibadan.

Nagarathanam. R, and Buang. N. A. 2016. The Relationship between Attitude, Intention, and Entrepreneurship Career Choice among Malaysian Indian Undergraduates. http://doi.org/10.17576/akad-2016-8602-03

Nandram S., and Samson, K. J. 2006. The spirit of Entrepreneurship. New York. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Obemeata, J.O. 1992. Effective teaching of economics in senior Secondary School (WAJE) Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 9 – 3.

Robinson, P.B.; Stimpson, D.V.; Huefner, J.C.; Hunt, H.K. 1991. An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrep. Theory Pract. 1991, 15, 13–31.

Reynolds. K, Haaset. J. 1994. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries." Education and Training 53, no. 5 (2011): 353-70.

Schumpeter. J.A. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development. Harvard University Press, Harvard, 1934.

Steyaert, C.; Katz, J. 2004. Reclaiming the Space of Entrepreneurship in Society: Geographical, Discursive and Social Dimensions. Entrep. Reg. Dev. 2004, 16, 179–196.

Kolvereid, L. 1996. Prediction of Employment Status Choice Intentions." Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice 21, no. 1 (Fall96 1996): 47-57.

Shneor, R. and Jenssen, Jan., I. 2014. Gender and Entrepreneurial Intentions”, in Kelley, L. (ed.), Entrepreneurial Women: New Management and Leadership Models, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishing, pp. 15-67.

Sata., M. 2013. Entrepreneurial Intention among undergraduate Business Students’ . International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce. IJRMEC Volume3, Issue 9 (September- 2013) ISSN: 2250-057X

Scherer, R.F.; Adams, J.S.; Carley, S.S.; Wiebe, F.A. 1995. Role model performance effects on development of entrepreneurial career preference. Entrep. Theory Pract. 1989, 13, 53–72.

Shook, C., and Bratianu, C. 2010. Entrepreneurial intent in a transitional economy: an application of the theory of planned behaviour to Romanian students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Vol. 6 No. 3, 231-247.

Pawlak. A, 2016. Poznań University of Economics and Business, Faculty of International Economics, Department of International Competitiveness agnieszka.pawlak@ue.poznan.pl

Ugwu, F.O., Ugwu, C., 2012, New Venture Creation: Ethnicity, Family Background

and Gender as Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intent in a Poor Economy, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 338–357.

Veciana, J.M.; Aponte, M.; Urbano, D. 2005 University students’ attitudes towards entrepreneurship: A two countries comparison. Int. Entrep. Manag. J. 2005, 1, 165–182.

Wu, L., & Li, J. 2011. Perceived value of entrepreneurship: A study of the cognitive process of entrepreneurial career decision. Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship 3(2): 134-146.

Wainer. M. and Rubin. O. 2016 Attitudes of Students towards Entrepreneurship Education at Two Selected Higher Education Institutions in Botswana: A Critical Analysis and Reflection. ResearchGate, 2016

Zaidatol A. and Lope., P.. 2007. Usahawan and Keusahawanan: Satu Perspektif Pendidikan. Serdang: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

ISSN PRINT: 2705-2494

ISSN ONLINE: 2705-2486

 

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.